The vast majority of semiconductor devices are made on a single wafer or a single wafer as a substrate. Batches of semiconductor single crystals are made by melt growth. The Czochralski method is most widely used. 80% of silicon single crystals, most of single crystal single crystals, and single crystals of indium antimonide are produced by this method, in which the maximum diameter of the silicon single crystal has reached 300 mm. The Czochralski method for introducing a magnetic field in the melt is called a magnetron pull method. With this method, a highly uniform silicon single crystal has been produced. A liquid covering agent is added on the surface of the crucible melt to form a liquid-seal Czochralski method, and a single crystal having a relatively high decomposition pressure of gallium arsenide, yttrium phosphide, indium phosphide, etc. is prepared by this method. The melt in the suspension zone melting method is not in contact with the vessel, and high-purity silicon single crystals are grown by this method. The horizontal zone melting method is used to produce single crystals. The horizontal directional crystallization method is mainly used for preparing a gallium arsenide single crystal, and the vertical directional crystallization method is used for preparing cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide. The single crystals produced by various methods are subjected to all or part of processes such as crystal orientation, barrel polishing, reference surface, slicing, polishing, chamfering, polishing, etching, cleaning, detection, and packaging to provide corresponding wafers.