Semiconductor materials can be divided according to their chemical composition, and amorphous and liquid semiconductors with unique structures and properties can be classified as a single class. According to such classification methods, semiconductor materials can be classified into elemental semiconductors, inorganic compound semiconductors, organic compound semiconductors, and amorphous and liquid semiconductors.
Elemental semiconductors distribute 11 kinds of semiconductive elements in the group IIIA to VIIA of the periodic table, and these are the 11 kinds of element semiconductors in the black box in the following table, in which Ç represents diamond. C, P, selenium has insulators and semiconductors. Two forms; B, silicon, germanium, and germanium have semiconductivity; tin, arsenic, germanium have two forms of semiconductor and metal. P's melting point and boiling point are too low, i's vapor pressure is too high, and it is easy to decompose, so their Practical value is not great. As for helium and tin, the stable state is metal, and semiconductors are unstable. B, C, and lanthanum have not yet been used because of difficulties in the preparation process and limitations in performance. Therefore, among the 11 elemental semiconductors, only germanium, silicon, and Se3 elements have been used. GE is still the most widely used of all semiconductor materials.